With the multicore explosion in the making, are we going to be running hundreds of thousands of threads in a single program? Erlang programmers would emphatically say, yes! C++ and Java programmers would probably say no.

Why this discrepancy?

Thread model based on heavy-duty OS threads and mutexes has its limitations. You can ask server writers, or Google for “thread per connection” to convince yourself. Servers use thread pools exactly because of that.

Thread pools are an admission of defeat for the thread model. Having to pool threads tells you that:

  • Thread creation is not fast enough
  • Threads’ consumption of resources is substantial, so it makes sense to keep their numbers down

Granted, these are technical problems that might be overcome in future by improvements in operating systems.

The more fundamental problem with threads has its root in memory sharing. It seems like sharing offers great advantage in terms of performance, but sharing requires locking. It’s a well known fact that locking doesn’t scale (or compose). Between races and deadlocks, it’s also extremely hard to get right.

Here’s what Erlang does

Erlang gives up on sharing!

Threads that don’t share memory are called processes. We tend to think of processes as heavyweight beasts implemented by operating systems. That’s because one needs the operating system to strictly enforce the no-sharing policy (the isolation of address spaces). Only the OS can manage separate address spaces and the passing of data between them.

But that’s not the only way. The isolation might instead be enforced by the language. Erlang is a functional language with strict copy semantics and with no pointers or references. Erlang processes communicate by message passing. Of course, behind the scenes, messages are passed through shared memory, thus avoiding a large performance hit of inter-process communication. But that’s invisible to the client.

Erlang rolls out its own threads!

Erlang interpreter provides lightweight processes (so lightweight that there’s a benchmark running 20 million Erlang processes).

And there is a bonus: Erlang code that uses lightweight processes will also work with heavyweight processes and in a distributed environment.

Why don’t we all switch to Erlang?

As far as I know there are two main reasons:

  • It’s a weird language. Don’t get me wrong, I love functional programming for its mathematical beauty, terseness, and elegance. But I had to rewire my brain to be able to write pure functional programs. Functional paradigm is as alien to our everyday experience as quantum mechanics. (CS grad students: you’re not typical programmers.)
  • Messages have to be copied. You can’t deep-copy a large data structure without some performance degradation, and not all copying can be optimized away (it requires behind-the-scenes alias analysis). This is why mainstream languages (and I will even include Scala in this category) don’t abandon sharing. Instead they rely on programmer’s discipline or try to control aliasing.


Native threads are expensive. Interpreted languages, like Erlang, can afford to implement their own lightweight threads and schedulers. I don’t see that happening in compiled languages. The hope is that  operating systems will improve their implementations of threads–I hear Linux’s NPTL already is a big improvement in this area. In the meanwhile, we have to rely on thread pools.

Shared memory concurrency model is the reason why multithreaded programming is so difficult and error-prone. Separating address spaces simplifies programming, but at a performance cost. I believe that some kind of compromise is possible. A message-passing or an actor model can work with sharing, as long as aliasing is under control.

Inspiration for this post

After my last post on thin lock implementation, I was asked the question, why I used such a small number, 1024, for the maximum number of threads. It was actually a number I’ve found in the D compiler runtime. A thin lock could easily work with a much larger number of threads. In fact I’m going to substantially increase the number of bits for thread ID at the expense of recursion count. But this question got me thinking about scalability of threading in general.


Fibers (as well as Java’s green threads) are not an alternative to heavyweight threads. Fibers can’t run in parallel, so they have no way to use multiple processors. They are more of a flow-of-control construct, often used interchangeably with coroutines.

Interesting reading